Balance beam is a women's artistic gymnastics event. It's the third of four apparatus, competed after vault and uneven bars in Olympic order (vault, uneven bars, balance beam, floor). It is often simply called "beam".
The Balance Beam:
Gymnasts sometimes use chalk to add additional traction to the beam, or to mark an important spot (i.e. where they start a dismount) on the beam.
Types of Balance Beam Skills:
In a leap, the gymnast propels herself off of one foot, performs a split at some point in the air, and lands on one foot. The gymnast must hit a full split (180 degrees or more) to avoid deductions. More difficult leaps include ring leaps, twisting leaps (with a turn during the leap) and switch leaps, where the gymnast starts on one leg and kicks the other leg forward then back into the split position.
Jumps are similar to leaps, except the gymnast takes off of two feet and lands on two feet. Ring jumps, sheep jumps, and twisting jumps in various positions are commonly-seen jumps at the elite level.
Every gymnast must perform at least one turn -- a skill in which the gymnast pirouettes on one foot at least 360 degrees around (a full turn). The more revolutions a gymnast does the more difficult it is, so double and triple turns are rated more highly than full turns. Gymnasts also can add to their difficulty score by performing turns with their free leg high in the air, or in a crouch position low to the beam.
Holds include scales and handstands. There are many fewer holds in beam routines today than in the past, simply because gymnasts don't have time to spare doing hold moves -- they want to pack in as many skills as they can of high value, and these skills take up more time than others and are generally of lower value.
Acrobatic moves encompass a wide variety of skills, ranging from walkovers to handsprings and flips, performed forwards and backwards. High level gymnasts do acrobatic moves in combination, and some of the toughest combinations being done involve full-twisting back flips in the tucked or stretched position.
The Best Beam Workers:
Chinese gymnasts Deng Linlin and Sui Lu achieved the same feat in 2012 as the Americans did in 2008, placing 1-2 in the Olympic beam final. Russian Viktoria Komova and Romanian gymnasts Catalina Ponor and Larisa Iordache are also top-notch on the event.
The Queen of Gymnastics, Nadia Comaneci, was also queen of the beam: She earned the Olympic beam title in both 1976 and 1980. Soviet superstar Olga Korbut won the gold in 1972, and took silver in 1976 behind Comaneci.